Migration Bibliography

Migration Bibliography

This bibliography focuses on recent papers on migration in China. There is a large literature on migration in other countries and contexts; I have only included a couple literature surveys and a recent paper on migration internal to the US. You can find almost all of these papers through the economics bibliographic databases in the links on the right of this site, EconPapers and EconLit. I have not put in “live” links; I want you to learn how to use these research tools. Note that you can find lots of papers that I have not included. The list may be exhausting in length, but it is far from exhaustive.

Note that it would be good to look through an overview of migration before diving into detailed studies. I have used the Ma and Miller books in class; both contain general background and useful vignettes. Lu and Xia (2016) is the most recent, and quite nice for its broad purview, though it does not use data subsequent to the 2010 Census.


Background and General Studies, China

Ebenstein, Avraham, and Yaohui Zhao. 2015. “Tracking Rural-to-Urban Migration in China: Lessons from the 2005 Inter-Census Population Survey.” Population Studies 69(3): 337–53.

Fischer, Andrew M. 2012. “Provincial Migration in China: Preliminary Insights from the 2010 Population Census.” Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus University. May, Working Paper No. 541.

Frijters, Paul and Meng, Xin. 2009. “Rural to Urban Migration in China: An Overall View.” Canberra: Australia National University. September, Working Paper.

Knight, John and Gunatilaka, Ramani. 2007. “Great Expectations? The Subjective Well-Being of Rural-Urban Migrants in China.” Oxford, UK: Department of Economics, University of Oxford. April, Working Paper Series Number 322.

Li, Rose Maria (1989). “Migration to China’s Northern Frontier, 1953-1982.” Population and Development Review 15:3 (September), 503–38.

Liang, Zai, Zhen Li, and Zhongdong Ma. 2014. “Changing Patterns of the Floating Population in China, 2000–2010.” Population and Development Review 40 (4): 695–716.

Lu, Ming, and Yiran Xia. 2016. Migration in the People’s Republic of China. Asian Development Bank Institute. ADBI Working Paper.

Ma, Damien, and William Adams. 2013. In Line Behind a Billion People: Pearson FT Press.

Miller, Tom. 2012. China’s Urban Billion: The Story behind the Biggest Migration in Human History. Asian Arguments. London; New York: Zed Books ; Distributed in the USA exclusively by Palgrave Macmillan.

Murphy, Rachel. 2009. “Introduction: Labor Migration and Social Development in China.” In: Rachel Murphy, ed. Labor Migration and Social Development in China. New York: Routledge, pp. 1-16.

Qu, Zhaopeng and Zhao, Zhong. 2011. “Evolution of the Chinese Rural-Urban Migrant Labor Market from 2002 to 2007.” Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). January, Discussion Paper No. 5421.

Solinger, Dorothy J. (1999) “China’s Floating Population.” In The Paradox of China’s Post-Mao Reforms, edited by Merle Goldman and Roderick MacFarquhar, 220–40. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

———. 2000. “Demolishing Partitions: Back to Beginnings in the Cities?” In The People’s Republic of China After 50 Years, edited by Richard Louis Edmonds, 67–77. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sun, Wenkai, Wang, Xianghong and Bai, Chong-En. 2014. Income inequality and mobility of rural households in China from 2003 to 2006. China Agricultural Economic Review, 6(1), pp. 73-91.

van Luyn, Floris-Jan. 2008. A Floating City of Peasants: The Great Migration in Contemporary China. New York: The New Press.

Wong, Linda. 2011. “Chinese Migrant Workers: Rights Attainment Deficits, Rights Consciousness and Personal Strategies.” China Quarterly. 208:December, pp. 870-892.

Yamaguchi, Mami. 2012. “Migration as a Rural Development Strategy and the Migrants Involved: An Account of a Migrants’ Hometown in Sichuan, China.” Institute of Developing Economies, Chiba Japan. IDE Discussion Paper No. 337.

Yusuf, Shahid (1997). Dynamics of Urban Growth in Three Chinese Cities. Washington, DC and New York: World Bank / Oxford University Press.

Zhou, Xueguang. 2011. The Autumn Harvest: Peasants and Markets in Post-Collective Rural China. China Quarterly, 208, pp. 913-931.

Background, surveys & comparative

Alvarez-Cuadrado, Francisco, and Markus Poschke. 2011. “Structural Change Out of Agriculture: Labor Push versus Labor Pull.” American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics 3: 127–58.

Chauvin, Juan Pablo, Edward Glaeser, Yueran Ma, and Kristina Tobio. 2016. What Is Different About Urbanization in Rich and Poor Countries? Cities in Brazil, China, India and the United States. National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper.

De Vries, Jan. 1984. European Urbanization, 1500-1800. London: Methuen and Co.

Hayami, Akira. 1973. “Labor Migration in a Pre-Industrial Society: A Study Tracing the Life Histories of the Inhabitants of a Village.” Keio Economic Studies 10(2): 15ff.

Hogan, D. J. and Pinto da Cunha, J. M. 2001. “Internal Migration: Developing Countries.” In: International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Elsevier, pp. 7733-7737.

Kundu, Amitabh. 2009 “Urbanisation and Migration: An Analysis of Trends, Patterns and Policies in Asia.” Munich Personal RePEc Archive and UNDP, June. 6164.

Lall, Somik V., Selod, Harris and Shalizi, Zmarak. 2006. “Rural-Urban Migration in Developing Countries: A Survey of Theoretical Predictions and Empirical Findings.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 3915.

Massey, D. S. 2001. “Migration, Theory of.” In: International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Elsevier, pp. 9828-9834.

Molloy, Raven, Smith, Christopher L. and Wozniak, Abigail. 2011. “Internal Migration in the United States.” Federal Reserve Board. May, Working Paper.

Munshi, Kaivan, and Mark Rosenzweig. 2016. “Networks and Misallocation: Insurance, Migration, and the Rural-Urban Wage Gap.” American Economic Review 106:1, 46–98. [India]

Taylor, J. Edward. 2003. “Migration Models.” In: Paul Demeny and Geoffrey McNicoll, eds., Encyclopedia of Population. New York: Macmillan Reference, pp. 640-644.

Tuan, Francis, Agapi Somwaru, and Xinshen Diao. 2000. “Rural Labor Migration, Characteristics, and Employment Patterns: A Study Based on China’s Agricultural Census.” International Food Policy Research Institute, TMD Discussion Paper No. 63.

White, James W. 1978. “Internal Migration in Prewar Japan.” Journal of Japanese Studies 4(1): 81–124.

Circular migration and Entrepreneurship

Cai, Yinyin, and Yew-Kwang Ng. 2014. “Part-Peasants: Incomplete Rural–Urban Labour Migration in China.” Pacific Economic Review 19 (4): 401–22.

Chen, Mo, Yexin Zhou, and Jingyi Ye. 2014. Self-Employment Choices of Rural Migrants in China: Distance and Social Network. Stockholm School of Economics.

Demurger, Sylvie and Li, Shi. 2012. “Migration, Remittances and Rural Employment Patterns: Evidence from China.” Groupe d’Analyse et de Théorie Économique Lyon-­‐St Étienne. October, WP 1230.

Démurger, Sylvie and Xu, Hui. 2010. “Return migrants : The rise of new entrepreneurs in rural China.” Universite de Lyon and Center for Modern Chinese City Studies, ECNU Shanghai. March.

Giulietti, Corrado, Ning, Guangjie and Zimmermann, Klaus F. 2011. “Self-Employment of Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China.” Bonn: IZA. June, DP No. 5805. Subsequently published in International Journal of Manpower (2012) 33:1, 96-117.

Giulietti, Corrado, Jackline Wahba, and Klaus F. Zimmerman. 2013. “Entrepreneurship of the Left-Behind.” Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit / Institute for the Study of Labor.

Hu, Feng and Wu, Sanmang. 2012. “Migration Experience of Village Leaders and Local Economic Development: Evidence from Rural China.”China and World Economy. 20:3, pp. 37-53.

Wang, Zi-cheng and Yang Wei-guo. 2013. “Self-Employment or Wage-Employment?” China Agricultural Economic Review 5 (2): 231–47.

Decision to migrate: rural side

Akay, Alpaslan, Bargain, Olivier and Zimmermann, Klaus F. 2011. “Relative Concerns of Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China.” UCD Geary Institute. January, Discussion Paper Series Wbib2011/02.

Akgüç, Mehtap, Xingfei Liu, Massimiliano Tani, and Klaus F. Zimmermann. 2015. “Risk Attitudes and Migration.” IZA Discussion Paper 9347. Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

Bodvarsson, Örn B., and Jack W. Hou. 2010. “The Effects of Aging on Migration in a Transition Economy: The Case of China.” Discussion Paper No. 5070. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). 6243.

Bodvarsson, Örn B., Jack W. Hou, and Kailing Shen. 2014. “Aging and Migration in a Transition Economy: The Case of China.” Discussion Paper No. 8351. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). 6242.

Chen, Xi. 2016. Old-Age Pension and Extended Families: How Is Adult Children’s Internal Migration Affected? Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). IZA Discussion Paper.

Chen, Zhao, Jiang, Shiqing, Lu, Ming and Sato, Hiroshi. 2008. “How do Heterogeneous Social Interactions affect the Peer Effect in Rural–Urban Migration?: Empirical Evidence from China.” Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance. LICOS Discussion Paper 224/2008.

Demurger, Sylvie. 2012. “Mapping Modes of Rural Labour Migration in China.” Groupe d’Analyse et de Théorie Économique Lyon-­‐St Étienne. May, WP 1209.

Deng, Quheng, and Björn Anders Gustafsson. 2006. “China’s Lesser Known Migrants.” IZA Discussion Paper 2152. Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

Ding, Sai, Xiao-Yuan Dong, and Margaret Maurer-Fazio. 2016. How Do Pre-School And/Or School-Age Children Affect Parents’ Likelihood of Migration and Off-Farm Work in Rural China’s Minority Regions? Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). IZA Discussion Paper.

Dustmann, Christian, Francesco Fasani, Xin Meng, and Luigi Minale. 2015. “Risk Attitudes and Household Migration Decisions.” CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1514. Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.

Giles, John, and Ren Mu. 2014. “Village Political Economy, Land Tenure Insecurity, and the Rural to Urban Migration Decision: Evidence from China.” IZA Discussion Paper 8630. Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

Ha, Wei, Yi, Junjian and Zhang, Junsen. 2009. “Inequality and Internal Migration in China: Evidence from Village Panel Data.” UNDP. Human Development Reports Research Paper 2009/27.

Meng, Lei, Min Qiang Zhao, and Dewi Silvany Liwu. 2016. “Joint Migration Decisions of Married Couples in Rural China.” China Economic Review 38: 285–305.

Qiao, Fangbin; Rozelle, Scott; Huang, Jikun; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu. 2014. Road Expansion and Off-Farm Work in Rural China. China Quarterly 218 (June), 428-451.

Wang, Tianhong, Atsushi Maruyama, and Masao Kikuchi. 2000. “Rural-Urban Migration and Labor Markets in China: A Case Study in a Northeastern Province.” The Developing Economies 38 (1): 80–104.

Xing, Chunbing. 2010. Migration, Self-Selection, and Income Distributions: Evidence from Rural and Urban China. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor. May, IZA Discussion Paper No. 4979.

Xing, Chunbing, and Junfu Zhang. 2013. “The Preference for Larger Cities in China: Evidence from Rural-Urban Migrants.” Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), Discussion Papers No 7562.

Yamaguchi, Mami. 2012. “Migration as a Rural Development Strategy and the Migrants Involved: An Account of a Migrants’ Hometown in Sichuan, China.” Institute of Developing Economies, Chiba Japan.

Yu, Song, Zheng, Jianmin and Qian, Wenrong. 2009. “To Be, or Not to Be: Rural Women’s Migration Decisions A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta.” Chinese Economy. 42:4, pp. 63-74.

Zhang, Junfu and Zhao, Zhong. 2013. “Measuring the Income-Distance Tradeoff for Rural-Urban Migrants in China.” Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor. IZA DP No. 7160.

Zhang, Lin, and Jill L. Findeis. 2010. “Intra-Household Time Allocation and Labor Migration Decisions in Rural South China.” 2010 Annual Meeting, July 25-27, 2010, Denver, Colorado 61520. Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.

Zhang, Mei. 2003. China’s Poor Regions: Rural-Urban Migration, Poverty, Economic Reform, and Urbanisation. London: RoutledgeCurzon.

Zhang, Yumei, Mateusz Filipski, Kevin Z. Chen, and Xinshen Diao. 2015. Who Is Poor This Year? Understanding Fluctuations in Poverty Status in Three Chinese Villages. International Association of Agricultural Economists. 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy.

Zhao, Yaohui (1999). “Leaving the Countryside: Rural-to-Urban Migration Decisions in China.” American Economic Review 89:2, 281–86.

———. 2003. “The Role of Migrant Networks in Labor Migration: The Case of China.” Contemporary Economic Policy 21:4, 500–511.

Decision to migrate: urban side

Cao, Guangzhong, Ming Li, Yan Ma, and Ran Tao. 2015. “Self-Employment and Intention of Permanent Urban Settlement: Evidence from a Survey of Migrants in China’s Four Major Urbanising Areas.” Urban Studies 52:4, 639–64.

Chang, Kuang-Chi, Wen, Ming and Wang, Guixin. 2013. Social Capital and Work among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China. Asian Population Studies 7:3, 275-293.

Combes, Pierre-Philippe, Demurger, Sylvie and Li, Shi. 2013. Urbanisation and Migration Externalities in China. Aix-Marseille School of Economics, Marseille, France. AMSE Working Papers No 1307.

Cui, Yuling, Nahm, Daehoon and Tani, Massimiliano. 2012. The Determinants of Rural Migrants’ Employment Choice in China: Results from a Joint Estimation. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor. October, IZA DP No. 6968.

Demurger, Sylvie, Marc Gurgand, Li Shi, and Ximing Yue. 2008. “Migrants as Second-Class Workers in Urban China? A Decomposition Analysis.” Ecully, France: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Groupe d’Analyse et de Theorie Economique.

Fan, C. Cindy. 2012. “Settlement Intention and Split Households: Findings from a Survey of Migrants in Beijing’s Urban Villages.” China Review 11:2, 11-42.

Fang, Tony, Morley Gunderson, and Carl Lin. 2016. “The Use and Impact of Job Search Procedures by Migrant Workers in China.” China Economic Review 37: 154–65.

Frijters, Paul, Lee, Leng and Meng, Xin. 2009. “Jobs, Working Hours, and Remuneration Packages for Migrants and Urban Residents.” Canberra: Australia National University. April, Working Paper.

Gagnon, Jason, Xenogiani, Theodora and Xing, Chunbing. 2011. “Are all migrants really worse off in urban labour markets? New empirical evidence from China.” Institute for the Study of Labor. December, IZA DP No. 6268.

Garriga, Carlos, Yang Tang, and Ping Wang. 2014. “Rural-Urban Migration, Structural Transformation, and Housing Markets in China.” Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.

Giulietti, Corrado, Jackline Wahba, and Yves Zenou. 2014. “Strong versus Weak Ties in Migration.” Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit / Institute for the Study of Labor.

Hu, Chaoran, Kevin Z. Chen, and Thomas Reardon. 2015. “Is There a City Size Bias? Destination Choice of Rural off-Farm Workers, Evidences from Three Areas in Rural China.” 2015 AAEA & WAEA Joint Annual Meeting, July 26-28, San Francisco. Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.

Liu, Yang, and Keisuke Kawata. 2015. “Labor Market and the Native-Immigrant Wage Gap: Evidence from Urban China.” Discussion paper. Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).

Long, Wenjin, Appleton, Simon Mark and Song, Lina. 2013. Job Contact Networks and Wages of Rural-Urban Migrants in China. Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). IZA Discussion Papers No 7577.

Park, Albert, and Dewin Wang. 2010. “Migration and Urban Poverty and Inequality in China.” Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit / Institute for the Study of Labor.

Wang, Huashu, Lei Pan, and Nico Heerink. 2013. “Working Conditions and Job Satisfaction of China’s New Generation of Migrant Workers: Evidence from an Inland City.” Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit (Institute for the Study of Labor).

Wu, Weiping, and Guixin Wang. 2014. “Together but Unequal: Citizenship Rights for Migrants and Locals in Urban China.” Urban Affairs Review 50:6, 781-805.

Wu, Zheren. 2008. “Self-selection and Earnings of Migrants: Evidence from Rural China.” Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP), Osaka University. Discussion Paper 08-25.

Zhang, Junfu, and Zhong Zhao. 2013. “Measuring the Income-Distance Tradeoff for Rural-Urban Migrants in China.” Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor.

———. 2011. “Social-Family Network and Self-Employment: Evidence from Temporary Rural-Urban Migrants in China.” Bonn: IZA. January, Discussion Paper No. 5446.

Zhao, Yaohui. 2003. “The Role of Migrant Networks in Labor Migration: The Case of China.” Contemporary Economic Policy. 21:4, pp. 500-511.

Demography, some not specific to migration

Babiarz, Kimberly Singer, Karen Eggleston, Grant Miller, and Qiong Zhang. 2015. “An Exploration of China’s Mortality Decline under Mao: A Provincial Analysis, 1950-80.” Population Studies 69(1): 39–56. .

Basten, Stuart, and Quanbao Jiang. 2015. “Fertility in China: An Uncertain Future.” Population Studies 69: S97-105.

Chen, Yuyu, Avraham Ebenstein, Lena Edlund, and Hongbin Li. 2015. “Girl Adoption in China–A Less-Known Side of Son Preference.” Population Studies 69(2): 161–78.

Goodkind, Daniel. 2015. “The Claim That China’s Fertility Restrictions Contributed to the Use of Prenatal Sex Selection: A Sceptical Reappraisal.” Population Studies 69(3): 263–79.

Guo, Zhen, Zheng Wu, Christoph M. Schimmele, and Shuzhuo Li. 2012. “The Effect of Urbanization on China’s Fertility.” Population Research Policy Review 31: 417–34.

Wang, Fei, Liqiu Zhao, and Zhong Zhao. 2016. China’s Family Planning Policies and Their Labor Market Consequences. Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). IZA.

Gender and Marriage

Bossen, L. 2007. “Village to Distant Village: The Opportunities and Risks of Long-Distance Marriage Migration in Rural China.” Journal of Contemporary China 16: 97.

Chang, Hongqin, Jing Liu, and Yanyun Gao. 2017. Land Tenure Policy and Women’s off-Farm Employment in Rural China. PEP-PMMA. Working Paper Series.

Chen, Feinian, Hui Liu, Kriti Vikram, and Yu Guo. 2015. “For Better or Worse: The Health Implications of Marriage Separation Due to Migration in Rural China.” Demography 52:4, 1321–43.

Fan, C. Cindy, and Wenfei Winnie Wang. 2008. “Migration and Social Protection in China.” In The Household as Security: Strategies of Rural-Urban Migrants in China, edited by Ingrid Nielsen and Russell Smyth, 205–43. New Jersey: World Scientific.

Feng, Chun-mei. 2011. “Rural Women Transfer from the Perspective of Family Migration.” Asia Agricutural Research. 4:5, pp. 36-42.

Fu, Diana. 2009. “A Cage of Voices: Producing and Doing Dagongmei in Contemporary China.” Modern China 35:5, 527–61.

Liang, Ying, Yingying Yi, and Qiufen Sun. 2013. “The Impact of Migration on Fertility under China’s Underlying Restrictions: A Comparative Study Between Permanent and Temporary Migrants.” Social Indicators Research 116 (1): 307–26.

Lu, Yao, and Ran Tao. 2015. “Female Migration, Cultural Context, and Son Preference in Rural China.” Population Research and Policy Review 34 (5): 665–86.

Pun, Ngai. 2005. Made in China: Women Factory Workers in a Global Workplace. Durham: Duke University Press.

Wang, Fei, Liqiu Zhao, and Zhong Zhao. 2016. “China’s Family Planning Policies and Their Labor Market Consequences.” IZA Discussion Paper 9746. Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

Geography, Hukou and Policy (Education, Urban Inequality, etc)

Adolfo, Cristobal Campoamor. 2014. “The Impact of China’s Hukou Restrictions on the Aggregate National Saving.” Loyola Andalucia University.

Asian Development Bank. 2015a. Building Human Capital through Labor Migration in Asia. Asian Development Bank. http://www.adb.org/publications/building-human-capital-through-labor-migration-asia.

Bao, Shuming, Bodvarsson, Örn B., Hou, Jack W. and Zhao, Yaohui. 2009. “The Regulation of Migration in a Transition Economy: China’s Hukou System.” Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). October, Discussion Paper No. 4493. Subsequently published in Contemporary Economic Policy (2011) 29:4, 564-579.

Bosker, Maarten, Brakman, Steven, Garretsen, Harry and Schramm, Marc. 2010. “Relaxing Hukou: Increased labor mobility and China’s Economic Geography.” University of Groningen. Working Paper.

Bosker, Maarten, Uwe Deichmann, and Mark Roberts. 2015. “Hukou and Highways: The Impact of China’s Spatial Development Policies on Urbanization and Regional Inequality.” Policy Research Working Paper Series 7350. The World Bank.

Chan, Kam Wing and Buckingham, Will. 2008. “Is China Abolishing the Hukou System?” The China Quarterly. 195:September, pp. 582-606.

Clemente, Jesus, Rafael Gonzales-Val, and Irene Olloqui. 2011. “Zipf’s and Gibrat’s Laws for Migrations.” Annals of Regional Science 47: 235–48.

Deininger, Klaus, Songqing Jin, Shouying Liu, and Fang Xia. 2015. “Impact of Property Rights Reform to Support China’s Rural-Urban Integration: Household-Level Evidence from the Chengdu National Experiment.” Policy Research Working Paper Series 7388. The World Bank.

Deininger, Klaus, Songqing Jin, Fang Xia, and Jikun Huang. 2014. “Moving Off the Farm: Land Institutions to Facilitate Structural Transformation and Agricultural Productivity Growth in China.” World Development 59 (July): 505–20.

Duvivier, Chloe, Li, Shi and Renard, Mary-Francoise. 2012. “Are Remote Rural Workers Trapped in Low-Remunerated Non-Agricultural Jobs? Evidence from China.” Clermont, France: CERDI, Universite d’Auvergne. Working Paper E 2012.05.

Gersovitz, Mark. 2016. “Sectoral Asymmetries and a Social-Welfare Interpretation of Hukou.” China Economic Review 38: 108–15.

Gustafsson, Björn and Sai, Ding. 2014. Why Is There No Income Gap Between the Hui Muslim Minority and the Han Majority in Rural Ningxia, China? Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). IZA Discussion Papers No 7970.

Gustafsson, Björn Anders, and Xiuna Yang. 2015. Are China’s Ethnic Minorities Less Likely to Move? Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). IZA Discussion Paper.

Kinnan, Cynthia, Shing-Yi Wang, and Yongxiang Wang. 2015. “Relaxing Migration Constraints for Rural Households.” Working Paper 21314. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Lenton, Pamela, and Lu Yin. 2016. The Educational Success of China’s Young Generation of Rural-to-Urban Migrants. The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics. Working Paper.

Pi, Jiancai, and Pengqing Zhang. 2016. “Hukou System Reforms and Skilled-Unskilled Wage Inequality in China.” China Economic Review 41: 90–103.

Tao, Ran. 2009. “Hukou Reform and Social Security for Migrant Workers in China.” In: Rachel Murphy, ed. Labor Migration and Social Development in China. New York: Routledge, Chapter 3, pp. 73-95.

Wu, Jian-Xin, and Ling-Yun He. 2016. Urban-Rural Gap and Poverty Traps in China: A Prefecture Level Analysis. arXiv.org. Working paper.

Yang, Jin, Hui Wang, Songqing Jin, Kevin Chen, Jeffrey Riedinger, and Peng Chao. 2014. “Migration, Local Off-Farm Employment, and Agricultural Production Efficiency: Evidence from China.” Discussion Paper 01338. IFPRI. 6285.

Yang, Juan, and Muyuan Qiu. 2016. “The Impact of Education on Income Inequality and Intergenerational Mobility.” China Economic Review 37: 110–25.

Zhan, Shaohua. 2011. “What Determines Migrant Workers’ Life Chances in Contemporary China? Hukou, Social Exclusion, and the Market.”Modern China. 37:3, pp. 243-285.

Zhou, Xueguang. 2011. “The Autumn Harvest: Peasants and Markets in Post-Collective Rural China.” China Quarterly. 208, pp. 913 931.

Zhu, Nong, and Xubei Luo. 2015. Hub-Periphery Development Pattern and Inclusive Growth : Case Study of Guangdong Province. The World Bank.

Zhu, Nong, Luo, Xubei and Zou, Heng-fu. 2012. “Regional Differences in China’s Urbanization and its Determinants.” China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics. Working Paper No. 535.

Left-Behind: Education

Asian Development Bank. 2015. “Impact of Migration on Family Members Left Behind.” In Building Human Capital through Labor Migration in Asia, Chapter 4, 34–47. Asian Development Bank.

Bai, Yu et al. 2016. Effect of Parental Migration on the Academic Performance of Left-behind Children in Northwestern China. Agricultural and Applied Economics Association. 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts. http://econpapers.repec.org/paper/agsaaea16/236806.htm.

Bian, Wei, Chunhui Ye, and Yunin Zhao. 2015. “Study on the Effect of Parents’ Migrating on the Education of the Rural Left-behind Children.” 2015 Conference, August 9-14, Milan, Italy. International Association of Agricultural Economists.

Brandt, Loren, Aloysius Siow, and Hui Wang. 2014. “Compensating for Unequal Parental Investments in Schooling.” Journal of Population Economics 28(2): 423–62.

Chen, Shuang, Jennifer Adams, Zhiyong Qu, Xiaohua Wang, and Li Chen. 2013. “Parental Migration and Children’s Academic Engagement: The Case of China.” International Review of Education 59:December, 693–722.

Chen, Xinxin, Huang, Qiuqiong, Rozelle, Scott and Zhang, Linxiu. 2007. “Migration, Money and Mother: The Effect of Migration on Children’s Educational Performance in Rural China.” American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting. July.

De Brauw, Alan and Giles, John. 2008. “Migrant Opportunity and the Educational Attainment of Youth in Rural China.” World Bank. February, Policy Research Working Paper 4526.

Démurger, Sylvie, and Hui Xu. 2015. “Left-behind Children and Return Migration in China.” IZA Journal of Migration 4:1 (December).

Karpestam, Peter. 2011. “Education, Migration and Source Community Incomes in Rural China.” Lund, Sweden: Lund University. January, Working Papers 2011:2.

Lee, Ming-Hsuan. 2011. “Migration and Children’s Welfare in China: the Schooling and Health of Children Left behind.” Journal of Developing Areas 44 :2, 165–82.

Liu, Jing, and Chunbing Xing. 2016. “Migrate for Education: An Unintended Effect of School District Combination in Rural China.” China Economic Review 40: 192–206.

Meng, Xin, and Chikako Yamauchi. 2015. “Children of Migrants: The Impact of Parental Migration on Their Children’s Education and Health Outcomes.” IZA Discussion Paper 9165. Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

Meyerhoefer, Chad D. and Chen, C. J. 2011. “The effect of parental labor migration on children’s educational progress in rural China.” Review of the Economics of Households. 9, pp. 379-396.

Pan, Yao. 2012. “The Effect of Labor Mobility Restrictions on Human Capital Accumulation in China.” Institute for International Economic Development, George Washington University. February, Working Paper 2012-05.

Selod, Harris, Hai-Anh H. Dang, and Yang Huang. 2016. Children Left behind in China : The Role of School Fees. The World Bank.

Wang, Sophie Xuefei. 2014. “The Effect of Parental Migration on the Educational Attainment of Their Left-Behind Children in Rural China.” The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy 14:3, 1037–80.

Zhang, Hongliang, Jere Behrman, C. Simon Fan, Xiangdong Wei, and Junsen Zhang. 2014. “Does Parental Absence Reduce Cognitive Achievements? Evidence from Rural China.” Journal of Development Economics 111:C, 181–95.

Zhao, Qiren, Yu, Xiaohua, Wang, Xiaobing and Glauben, Thomas. 2012. “The impact of parental migration on children’s school performance in rural China.” International Association of Agricultural Economists. Poster Session Paper.

Zhou, Minhui, Murphy, Rachel and Tao, Ran. 2014. Effects of Parents’ Migration on the Education of Children Left Behind in Rural China. Population and Development Review, 40:2, 273-292.

Zhu, Hongfei, He, Lixin and Yuan, Tangjun. 2012. “Could Education Retain Farmers in the Local Area?” Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics. 52:1, 39-47.

Left-Behind: Health

Ao, Xiang, Dawei Jiang, and Zhong Zhao. 2015. “The Impact of Rural-Urban Migration on the Health of the Left-behind Parents.” IZA Discussion Paper 9350. Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

Asian Development Bank. 2015. “Impact of Migration on Family Members Left Behind.” In Building Human Capital through Labor Migration in Asia, Chapter 4, 34–47. Asian Development Bank.

Chen, Feinian, Hui Liu, Kriti Vikram, and Yu Guo. 2015. “For Better or Worse: The Health Implications of Marriage Separation Due to Migration in Rural China.” Demography 52:4, 1321–43.

Chen, Xi. 2016. Old-Age Pension and Extended Families: How Is Adult Children’s Internal Migration Affected? Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). IZA Discussion Paper.

Connelly, Rachel, and Margaret Maurer-Fazio. 2015. “Left Behind, At Risk, and Vulnerable Elders in Rural China: What the RUMIC Data Reveal about the Extent, Causes, and Consequences of Being Left Behind.” IZA Discussion Paper 9213.

De Brauw, Alan and Mu, Ren. 2012. “Unattended but Not Undernourished: Young Children Left Behind in Rural China.” International Food Policy Research Institute. June, IFPRI Discussion Paper 01191.

He, Congzhi, and Jingzhong Ye. 2014. “Lonely Sunsets: Impacts of Rural–urban Migration on the Left-behind Elderly in Rural China.” Population, Space and Place 20:4, 352–69.

Huang, Bihong, Yujun Lian, and Wensu Li. 2016. “How Far Is Chinese Left-behind Parents’ Health Left Behind?” China Economic Review, Special Issue on Human Capital, Labor Markets, and Migration, 37:February, 15–26.

Lee, Ming-Hsuan. 2011. “Migration and Children’s Welfare in China: the Schooling and Health of Children Left behind.” Journal of Developing Areas 44 :2, 165–82.

Li, Qiang, Gordon Liu, and Wenbin Zang. 2015. “The Health of Left-behind Children in Rural China.” China Economic Review 36:December, 367–76.

Meng, Xin, and Chikako Yamauchi. 2015. “Children of Migrants: The Impact of Parental Migration on Their Children’s Education and Health Outcomes.” IZA Discussion Paper 9165. Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

Mu, Ren, and Alan de Brauw. 2015. “Migration and Young Child Nutrition: Evidence from Rural China.” Journal of Population Economics 28:3, 631–57.

Qin, Lijian, Chien-Ping Chen, Xun Liu, Chenggang Wang, and Zhongyi Jiang. 2015. “Health Status and Earnings of Migrant Workers from Rural China.” China and World Economy 23:2, 84–99.

Scheffel, Juliane, and Yiwei Zhang. 2016. How Does Internal Migration Affect the Emotional Health of Elderly Parents Left-Behind? Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association. Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change.

Tong, Yuying and Piotrowski, Martin. 2012. “Migration and Health Selectivity in the Context of Internal Migration in China, 1997–2009.” Population Research Policy Review. 31, 497-543.

Zhang, Shu. 2012. “Migration and Children’s Health: Evidence From Rural China.” University of Houston. January, Working Paper.

Left-Behind: Remittances, Inequality and Poverty

Akay, Alpaslan, Olivier B. Bargain, Corrado Giulietti, Juan Robalino, and Klaus Zimmermann. 2015. “Remittances and Relative Concerns in Rural China.” Working Paper. IZA (Institute for the Study of Labor), June.

Akay, Alpaslan, Corrado Giulietti, Juan Robalino, and Klaus Zimmermann. 2013. “Remittances and Well-Being among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China.” Working Paper 1447. Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section.

Asian Development Bank. 2015. “Impact of Migration on Family Members Left Behind.” In Building Human Capital through Labor Migration in Asia, Chapter 4, 34–47. Asian Development Bank.

Christiaensen, Luc, Lei Pan, and Sangui Wang. 2013. “Pathways Out of Poverty in Lagging Regions: Evidence from Rural Western China.” Agricultural Economics 44:1, 25–44.

Demurger, Sylvie and Li, Shi. 2012. “Migration, Remittances and Rural Employment Patterns: Evidence from China.” Groupe d’Analyse et de Théorie Économique Lyon-­‐St Étienne. October, WP 1230.

Démurger, Sylvie, and Xiaoqian Wang. 2016. “Remittances and Expenditure Patterns of the Left Behinds in Rural China.” IZA Discussion Paper 9640. Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

Giles, John, Wang, Dewen and Zhao, Changbao. 2010. “Can China’s Rural Elderly Count on Support from Adult Children? Implications of Rural-to-Urban Migration.” World Bank. December, Policy Research Working Paper 5510.

Ha, Wei, Junjian Yi, Ye Yuan, and Junsen Zhang. 2016. “The Dynamic Effect of Rural-to-Urban Migration on Inequality in Source Villages: System GMM Estimates from Rural China.” China Economic Review, Special Issue on Human Capital, Labor Markets, and Migration, 37:February, 27–39.

Hua, Yue. 2015. Migration Decision and Rural Income Inequality in Northwestern China. University Library of Munich, Germany. MPRA Paper.

Imai, Katsushi and You, Jing. 2013. Poverty Dynamics of Households in Rural China. Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University. Discussion Paper Series No DP2013-16.

Murphy, Rachel. 2000. “Migration and Inter-Household Inequality: Observations from Wanzai County, Jiangxi.” China Quarterly, 965–82.

———. 2009. “Labor Migration and Social Development in China.” In Migrant Remittances in China: The Distribution of Economic Benefits and Social Costs, edited by Rachel Murphy, 47–72. New York: Routledge, 2009.

———. 2009. “Migrant Remittances in China: the distribution of economic benefits and social costs.” In: Rachel Murphy, ed. Labor Migration and Social Development in China. New York: Routledge, Chapter 2, pp. 47-72.

Sun, Wenkai, and Xianghong Wang. “Do Relative Income and Income Inequality Affect Consumption: Evidence from the Villages of Rural China.” The Journal of Development Studies 49:4, 533–46.

Zhao, Jianmei, and Peter J. Barry. 2014. “Income Diversification of Rural Households in China.” Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics 62, 307–24.

Zhu, Nong, and Xubei Luo. 2014. “The Impact of Migration on Rural Poverty and Inequality: A Case Study in China.” Agricultural Economics 41:2, 191–204. Also Cirrano Working Paper 2014s – 08.

Zhu, Yu, Wu, Zhongmin, Peng, Liquan and Sheng, Laiyun. 2009. “Where did all the remittances go? Understanding the impact of remittances on consumption patterns in rural China.” University of Kent Department of Economics. May, KDPE 0907.

Migration & Agriculture

Alvarez-Cuadrado, Francisco, and Markus Poschke. 2011. “Structural Change Out of Agriculture: Labor Push versus Labor Pull.” American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics 3: 127–58.

Che, Yi, Yan Zhang, and Linhui Yu. 2015. “The Development of Farm Labor Market in Rural China.” China Agricultural Economic Review 7(2): 280–302.

Che, Yi. 2016. “Off-Farm Employments and Land Rental Behavior: Evidence from Rural China.” China Agricultural Economic Review 8(1): 37–54.

Deininger, Klaus, Songqing Jin, Fang Xia, and Jikun Huang. 2014. “Moving Off the Farm: Land Institutions to Facilitate Structural Transformation and Agricultural Productivity Growth in China.” World Development 59 (July): 505–20.

Dorin, Bruno, Jean-Charles Hourcade, and Michel Benoit-Cattin. 2013. “A World Without Farmers? The Lewis Path Revisited.” Working Papers No 47-2013. Centre International de Recherches sur l’Environnement et le Développement. 6237.

Ebenstein, Avraham, Zhang, Jian, McMillan, Margaret S. and Chen, Kevin. 2011. “Chemical Fertilizer and Migration in China.” NBER. Working Paper No. 17245.

Giles, John, and Ren Mu. 2014. “Village Political Economy, Land Tenure Insecurity, and the Rural to Urban Migration Decision: Evidence from China.” IZA Discussion Paper. Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

Huang, Jikun, Liangliang Gao, and Scott Rozelle. 2012. “The Effect of off-Farm Employment on the Decisions of Households to Rent out and Rent in Cultivated Land in China.” China Agricultural Economic Review 4:1, 5–17.

Li, Lihua, and Matthew Tonts. 2014. “The Impacts of Temporary Labour Migration on Farming Systems of the Loess Plateau, Gansu Province, China.” Population, Space and Place 20:4, 316–32.

Li, Lihua, Chenggang Wang, Eduardo Segarra, and Zhibiao Nan. 2013. “Migration, Remittances, and Agricultural Productivity in Small Farming Systems in Northwest China.” China Agricultural Economic Review 5:1, 5–23.

Li, Min, and Terry Sicular. 2013. “Aging of the Labor Force and Technical Efficiency in Crop Production: Evidence from Liaoning Province, China.” China Agricultural Economic Review 5:3, 342–59.

Meng, Lei. 2012. “Can Grain Subsidies Impede Rural–urban Migration in Hinterland China? Evidence from Field Surveys.” China Economic Review 23: 729–41.

Mullan, Katrina, Grosjean, Pauline and Kontoleon, Andreas. 2008. “Land Tenure Arrangements and Rural-Urban Migration in China.” University of Cambridge Department of Land Economy. Environmental Economy and Policy Research Working Paper 37. Subsequently published in World Development (2011) 39:1, 123-133.

Qian, Wenrong, Baozhi Li, and Liyi Zheng. 2015. The Impact of Non-Agricultural Employment on Farmland Transfer and Investment in Agricultural Assets: Evidence from China. International Association of Agricultural Economists. 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan.

Rupelle, Maëlys, de la, Deng, Quheng, Li, Shi and Vendryes, Thomas. 2009. “Land Rights Insecurity and Temporary Migration in Rural China.” Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). December, IZA Discussion Paper No. 4668.

Siciliano, Giuseppina. 2014. “Rural-Urban Migration and Domestic Land Grabbing in China.” Population, Space and Place 20:4, 333–51.

Tuan, Francis, Agapi Somwaru, and Xinshen Diao. 2000. “Rural Labor Migration, Characteristics, and Employment Patterns: A Study Based on China’s Agricultural Census.” TMD Discussion Paper No. 63. International Food Policy Research Institute.

Wang, Chenggang, Pan, Suwen and Qin, Lijiang. 2009. “Effects of Off-Farm Work on Farm Household Production Choices.” International Association of Agricultural Economists. Poster Session Paper.

Wang, Xiaobing, Futoshi Yamauchi, Keijiro Otsuka, and Jikun Huang. 2014. “Wage Growth, Landholding, and Mechanization in Chinese Agriculture.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series 7138.

Ward, Patrick S., and Gerald E. Shively. 2015. “Migration and Land Rental as Responses to Income Shocks in Rural China.” Pacific Economic Review 20 (4): 511–43.

Westmore, Ben. 2015. “Agricultural Reforms and Bridging the Gap for Rural China.” OECD Economics Department Working Paper 1218. OECD Publishing.

Yamaguchi, Mami. 2012. “Migration as a Rural Development Strategy and the Migrants Involved: An Account of a Migrants’ Hometown in Sichuan, China.” IDE Discussion Paper No. 337. Institute of Developing Economies.

Yan, Xiaohuan, Siegfried Bauer, and Xuexi Huo. 2014. “Farm Size, Land Reallocation, and Labour Migration in Rural China.” Population, Space and Place 20:4, 303–15.

Theory / Lewis model

Athukorala, Prema-chandra, and Zheng Wei. 2015. “Economic Transition and Labour Market Dynamics in China: An Interpretative Survey of the ‘Turning Point’ Debate.” Departmental Working Paper. The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.

Bruni, Michele. 2011. “China’s New Demographic Challenge: From Unlimited Supply of Labour to Structural Lack of Labour Supply. Labour Market and Demographic Scenarios: 2008-2048.” CAPPaper n. 82. Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Centro di Analisi delle Politiche Pubbliche. 6245.

Cai, Fang. 2008. “Approaching a Triumphal Span: How Far Is China Towards Its Lewisian Turning Point?” Working Paper Series RP2008/09. World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).

Cai, Fang, and Meiyan Wang. 2010. “Growth and Structural Changes in Employment in Transition China.” Journal of Comparative Economics 38 (1): 71–81.

Chen, Zhao, Xiaofeng Liu, and Ming Lu. 2013. “Beyond Lewis: Rural-to-Urban Migration with Endogenous Policy Change.” China Agricultural Economic Review 5:2, 213–30.

Chen, Zhao, Ming Lu, and Pengtu Ni. 2016. Urbanization and Rural Development in the People’s Republic of China. Asian Development Bank Institute. ADBI Working Paper. http://econpapers.repec.org/paper/risadbiwp/0596.htm (November 7, 2016).

Das, Mitali, and Papa N’Diaye. 2013. “Chronicle of a Decline Foretold: Has China Reached the Lewis Turning Point?” Working Paper WP/13/26. IMF. 6169.

De Brauw, Alan and Giles, John. 2012. “Migrant Labor Markets and the Welfare of Rural Households in the Developing World: Evidence from China.” Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor. April, IZA Discussion Paper No. 6765.

Dorin, Bruno, Jean-Charles Hourcade, and Michel Benoit-Cattin. 2013. “A World Without Farmers? The Lewis Path Revisited.” Working Papers No 47-2013. Centre International de Recherches sur l’Environnement et le Développement.

Ercolani, Marco, and Zheng Wei. 2010. “An Empirical Analysis of the Lewis-Ranis-Fei Theory of Dualistic Economic Development for China.” Discussion Paper. Department of Economics, University of Birmingham.

Fukao, Kyoji, and Tangjun Yuan. 2012. “Chinaʼs Economic Growth, Structural Change and the Lewisian Turning Point.” Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics 53:2, 147–76.

Ge, Suqin, and Dennis Tao Yang. 2010. “Labor Market Developments in China: A Neoclassical View.” IZA Discussion Paper No. 5377.

Ge, Suqin, Dennis Tao Yang, and Junsen Zhang. 2012. “Population Policies, Demographic Structural Changes, and the Chinese Household Saving Puzzle.” IZA Discussion Paper No. 7026. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor.

Ghosh, Dipak. 2007. “The Metamorphosis of Lewis’s Dual Economy Model.” Journal of Economic Methodology 14:1, 5–25.

Huang, Yiping, and Jiang Tingsong. 2010. “What Does the Lewis Turning Point Mean for China? A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis.” Macroeconomics Working Paper. East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.

Huff, Gregg, and Giovanni Caggiano. 2007. “Globalization, Immigration, and Lewisian Elastic Labor in Pre–World War II Southeast Asia.” Journal of Economic History 67:1, 33–68.

Islam, Nazrul, and Kazuhiko Yokota. 2009. “China’s Industrialization Viewed from the Lewis Growth Model.” In Resurgent China: Issues for the Future, edited by Nazrul Islam, 123–48. Palgrave Macmillan.

Knight, John, Quheng Deng, and Shi Li. 2010. “The Puzzle of Migrant Labour Shortage and Rural Labour Surplus in China.” Discussion Paper Series Number 494. University of Oxford.

Knight, John, Deng Quheng, and Shi Li. 2010. “The Puzzle of Migrant Labour Shortage and Rural Labour Surplus in China.” Economics Series Working Paper 494. University of Oxford, Department of Economics.

Kung, James Kai-Sing, Nansheng Bai, and Yiu-Fai Lee. 2011. “Human Capital, Migration, and a ‘vent’ for Surplus Rural Labour in 1930s China: The Case of the LowerYangzi.” Economic History Review 64 (S1): 117–41.

Kwan, Fung, Yanrui Wu, and Shuaihe Zhuo. 2013. “Re-Examination of the Surplus Agricultural Labour in China.” China Agricultural Economic Review 5 (2): 197–212.

Lall, Somik V., Harris Selod, and Zmarak Shalizi. 2006. “Rural-Urban Migration in Developing Countries: A Survey of Theoretical Predictions and Empirical Findings.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 3915. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

Lewis, W. Arthur. 1954. “Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour.” The Manchester School 22:2, 139–91.

——— (1955). The Theory of Economic Growth. Vol. 18. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.

Liu, Yang. 2012. “Does Internal Immigration Always Lead to Urban Unemployment in Emerging Economies? : A Structural Approach Based on Data from China.” Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, 53:1, 85-105.

Mao, Rui, and Yang Yao. 2010. “Structural Change in an Open Economy.” China Center for Economic Research Working Paper 2010-05. Beijing: Peking University.

Peng, Xiujian, and Yinhua Mai. 2008. “Population Ageing, Labour Market Reform and Economic Growth in China – A Dynamic General Equilibrium Analysis.” Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Paper. Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.

Ranis, Gustav. 2004. “Arthur Lewis’ Contribution to Development Thinking and Policy.” Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper No. 891. Yale University.

Sah, Raaj Kumar, and Joseph E. Stiglitz. 1984. “The Economics of Price Scissors.” American Economic Review 74:1, 125–38.

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