With growing urbanization and a still booming population, China must increasingly deal with the negative externalities of pollution. To combat this, the Chinese government will spend tens of billions of yuan to mitigate the heavy metal and soot contamination of certain farmlands. Arguably, the Chinese government could benefit from economic policy to lessen the effects of these negative externalities of steel production and coal combustion. One example of this is imposing a tax on firms that produce the pollution to curb the damage done to arable land. Also, future investment in modernizing agricultural production (such as through GMO crops) could both increase food production and avert the effects of pollution.