Is China the new hub for Technology?

Through the semester we have come to realize that China can no longer sustain on low skilled jobs. The economy needs to begin to move into a more complex industry in order to continue growing maintain a competitive edge. While we may not see headlines in the United States yet, private companies in China may have already begun taking huge stakes in the internet.

Uber has long been the largest private internet company but many Chinese companies aim to take Uber’s place. Back in April 2016, people were valuing Ant Financial at around $60 Billion dollars, a Chinese financial assistance company, beating Uber by $9 billion dollars. Today, while Ant financial no longer has the same valuatio
n as before, two Chinese companies follow Uber: didi chuxing (滴滴出行) at #33.8 billion and Xiaomi (小米科技) at $46 billion.

Didi Chuxing is a ride-sharing company exactly like Uber. Besides being created in China and User-Interface differences, the two apps operate the same way and yet Uber lost almost a billion dollars in 2015 trying to compete with Didi Chuxing. Last year, after a long hard battle, Uber decided to be bought by Didi Chuxing particularly due to losses totaling to almost a billion dollars again. With such an acquisition, Didi Chuxing now looks to expand into the global market and perhaps one day overtake Uber in valuation. 

Xiaomi is the fourth largest phone manufacturing company behind Huawei, Samsung and Apple. Like Huawei, people do not recognize the brand Xiaomi very often in the United States but have constantly released their own line of processors and smartphones. Xiaomi’s low-budget smartphones may have limited their global launch but they have begun starting in India. At an event in Dubai, they showed three new models ready for launch in India and North Africa.

So we must keep a close eye on these industries as they slowly begin entering the global market. Both Xiaomi and Didi Chuxing have yet to fully enter and achieve a worldwide presence thus it will be interesting to see how they plan to enter their respective saturated markets in the United states. Didi Chuxing could face the same fate as Uber if they expand to the States and Xiaomi may simply never make a dent in the smartphone market.

Sources:

https://www.cbinsights.com/research-unicorn-companies

Alibaba’s financial spinoff is now the world’s most valuable private internet company

https://www.wsj.com/articles/china-s-didi-chuxing-to-acquire-rival-uber-s-chinese-operations-1470024403

http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1034391.shtml

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Does China’s Investment in Africa Have Ulterior Motives?

In December 2015 the Chinese promised a $60 billion aid package to boost infrastructure and economic development in a wide range of African nations. While Chinese investment in the region is not new, the price tag certainly is. In 2008, the Chinese sent only $7 billion, ramping it up to $30 billion in 2013. This increase is even more significant is more astounding given uncertain economic times in China due to a well-covered slow down. While China sends foreign aid to South East Asia and the Middle East, those figures dwarf its recent African investment. While China makes no direct efforts to conceal exactly what this money is going to, it also isn’t forthright with its intentions through some central plan, data tracking, or grand presentation on its goals. That can only leave those of us in the Western world to hypothesize.

http://www.diplomaticourier.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Photo-by-REUTERS-Christopher-Herwi.jpg

So, what is driving China’s decision to inject this much capital into diverse areas of the continent. Some would be quick to say humanitarian aid. While China’s targets have been economic stimulation and not specific aid initiatives like food for areas facing famine or aid in the recent ebola outbreak, even a socialist state would admit a rising tide lifts all boats. China is potentially trying its hand at creating a little capitalist growth by investing in individual firms to lift entire areas. This could be purely a selfless exercise on the part of the Chinese government, however experts are cynical.

Then there is the other extreme believing China is attempting to buy influence in the region. 63% of African nations approve of Chinese influence in the region. Most of the African nations targeted specifically by investment initiatives prefer the Chinese economic model to the American. There are dozens of conspiracy websites laying out why specifically China would be amassing influence in Africa, however no matter the reason, the investment has certainly upped its esteem in the region. Maybe China is planning to amass allies for political and economic gain in the future in the case of a trade war or other economic tension that could arise between China and the West.

http://www.chinaafricarealstory.com/

The theory with the most traction is a somewhat middle ground between the completely altruistic view and the influence buying view, believing that China is targeting its investments to produce a reliable source of cheap resources.  While some would call buying coal mining operations and access to oil and gas a form of modern colonialism, firm level investments have aided both Chinese investors and African business owners. Africa also hosts many rare resources such as metals used as semi-conductors in technological manufacturing carried out largely in China. As the Chinese learned through their own rural development initiatives, cheap resources and products are nothing without the infrastructure to move them from point A to point B. African infrastructure let’s China transport the resource it acquires more efficiently. By investing in ways to make raw materials cheaper, China helps cut some of the costs of manufacturing, which have been rising as of late.

While the Chinese are not necessarily open with their intentions in Africa, this will be important to watch in the next few years, particularly as China continues to develop into a service oriented economy and away from sole reliance on manufacturing.

 

Sources:

http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/chinas-investments-in-africa-whats-the-real-story/

https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Why-is-China-investing-in-Africa.pdf

http://www.cnn.com/2016/11/03/africa/what-africans-really-think-of-china/

 

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Overview of China’s Healthcare System

Total Health Expenditures of Countries (% of GDP) http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1413937

Possessing a viable healthcare system is essential for the social and financial wellbeing of a country. The Chinese healthcare system has changed dramatically since 1949 and the rise of the Communist Party of China. Since 1949, healthcare coverage has gone from universal to almost none in 1982, to now, reportedly, 95% (Wordbook 2012). The Health and Family Planning Commission aims to have universal health care by 2020. While coverage is broad, its depth has been questioned recently. In 2014, China spent 5.5% of its GDP on healthcare, compared to the U.S. who spent 17.1% of its GDP n healthcare for a population a fraction of China’s (World Bank).

Part of China’s most recent healthcare reform in 2008 is to provide a vast network of primary care, especially for those in rural areas which contain the majority of the Chinese population. The Chinese healthcare system is organized into three tiers of increasing intensity of care. With primary care facilities in villages or towns as the first tier, county hospitals as the second tier, and tertiary hospitals, usually located in major cities. As a patients visit facilities on higher tiers, their copayments often increase by orders
of magnitude for each tier (Bumenthal et al.). This can lead patients to fail to seek out necessary treatment.

The Chinese healthcare system is overseen by the Health and Family Planning Commission to ensure fair healthcare across all of china, however with 45% of hospitals privately owned and mainly for-profit, quality of care and professionalism can vary (The Commonwealth Fund). The majority of Chinese hospital profits come from prescriptions, which are often not covered by the general government provided health insurance. Hospitals are allowed a 15% markup in distribution of prescription drugs, givi
ng providers financial incentive to generate demand for more expensive drugs (The Commonwealth Fund). Pilot programs, including 3,077 public county hospitals and 446 public city hospitals, were put in place in 2015 to try to eliminate markups of prescription drugs (The Commonwealth Fund). For perspective, as of 2013 there were 24,706 total hospitals and 915,368 primary care facilities in China. Thus, eliminating the profit maximizing behaviors  of drug companies and healthcare providers, potentially harming patient quality of care, still has a long way to go.

https://www.wsj.com/articles/china-health-authorities-say-five-patients-at-hangzhou-hospital-contracted-hiv-1486646748

Recently, quality of care in China has been under fire following an HIV outbreak in Hangzhou hospital on January 26th, 2017. The Wall Street Journal reports the outbreak was caused by a technical violating protocol and reusing a needle that had come into contact with a patient positive for HIV. Interestingly, this story was scrubbed from Chinese news stations, suggesting a lack of transparency in the Chinese public health system. This is alarming, especially considering the consequences of the delayed public announcement resulting in the SARs outbreak in 2003.

In conclusion, China continues to develop its healthcare and public health system to meet the needs of its massive population. Comprehensive coverage and quality care still remain issues, but China has come a long way in the past 20 years and continues to implement new policies and programs to provide the best healthcare for its citizens.

References:

https://www.wsj.com/articles/china-health-authorities-say-five-patients-at-hangzhou-hospital-contracted-hiv-1486646748

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.TOTL.ZS

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378720616300337

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1413937

http://international.commonwealthfund.org/countries/china/

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212828X16300445

 

 

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China’s Renewable Energy Renaissance

On January 5th 2017, The Chinese National Energy Administration (NEA) announced a plan to spend more than 360 Billion dollars on solar and wind energy infrastructure through 2020. China’s involvement in renewables has been an ongoing endeavor over the past ten years; In fact, China’s production of photovoltaic cells has increased 100-fold since 2005. Because of their commitment to produce this renewable energy at such large quantities, they have achieved the Swanson Effect which says that as photovoltaic production doubles, its price drops by 20 percent.

China’s January 5th announcement is important for a few reasons. It will create more than 13 million jobs in the renewable energy sector, reduce the emissions of greenhouse gasses and clean the air in cities like Beijing which has been plagued by smog. Although China increased their efforts in renewable energy, they are still a large contributor to the global climate change crisis; China currently emits twice as many greenhouse gasses as the United States. Given the comparable sizes of the country, this is not a completely fair comparison, but it does show the magnitude of emissions produced by China. Because of this, China is now  rapidly increasing their efforts in clean energy.

To contextualize the breadth of The NEA’s efforts, Greenpeace estimates that “that China installed an average of more than one wind turbine every hour of every day in 2015, and covered the equivalent of one soccer field every hour with solar panels.” In addition, China may meet its 2020 goal by 2018 given the rapid pace they are currently moving.

There is another story behind China’s renewable investment, and that is coal. According to analysts, China’s coal consumption peaked in 2014 and many believe that it will never return to these levels. At its peak, roughly 70% of China’s energy was derived from coal, though this is now declining. Currently, it is estimated that over 15% of China’s energy now comes from renewables and this percentage should increase to as much as 25% as the 2020 plan draws to completion. There is still much room to grow for China in the renewable space, but if their previous actions are any indication, there is no intention to slow down any time soon.

Sources:

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/05/world/asia/china-renewable-energy-investment.html

http://www.nature.com/news/economics-manufacture-renewables-to-build-energy-security-1.15847

https://cleantechnica.com/2016/09/15/latest-trends-chinas-continuing-renewable-energy-revolution/

https://qz.com/641993/the-worlds-biggest-polluter-is-now-the-world-leader-in-renewable-energy-spending/

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/jul/25/china-coal-peak-hailed-turning-point-climate-change-battle

https://qzprod.files.wordpress.com/2016/03/screen-shot-2016-03-17-at-3-42-04-pm.png?w=1600

http://www.forbes.com/sites/wadeshepard/2016/07/08/if-china-is-so-committed-to-renewable-energy-why-are-so-many-new-coal-plants-being-built/#29b961c265f7

 

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The Impact of the Chinese New Year On Domestic Consumer Activity

According to data on the website of the Swiss Federal Customs Information, gold exports to China from major producer Switzerland skyrocketed in December of 2016, with more exports than any other month since January 2014. Given that China is consistently one of the world’s top gold consumers, this may not seem entirely unusual. However, it might have been preparation for the recent Chinese New Year, which brought in the Year of the Rooster, that was responsible for the spike in gold purchases.

The beginning of the Year of the Rooster, which began on January 28th, is commonly associated with gifting gold, which, along with lower prices at the tail end of 2016, led to the increased demand for the precious metal. The rooster is one of the 12 rotating animals on the Chinese zodiac.

The massive spike in gold exports to China is based upon consumers’ interpretation of the zodiac. However, the Chinese New Year brings plenty of other major rifts in Chinese consumer activity.

Travel, especially in groups or with families, rises significantly in China during the holiday season. According to ForwardKeys, a firm that predicts future travel patterns and analyzes over 16 million booking transactions a day, there was an 18% rise in bookings made by families of up to four members for travel during this holiday season compared to last year (as of December 30, 2016). While most Chinese travelers prefer Asian destinations, Europe is becoming a more popular hub for Chinese tourism in the holiday season; bookings for travel to Europe were up by 56% over the New Year.

The spike in tourism during the Chinese New Year carries a hefty price tag; According to research by the China National Tourism Administration and Ctrip (a Chinese travel company) spending projections are about 100 billion yuan (US$14.5 billion) this New Year fpr around six million Chinese traveling outside the country. Last year’s holiday period saw an economic impact of 90 billion yuan from overseas travel by 5.2 million Chinese,

The new year also carries weight for factory workers, as Chinese factories shut down for the holiday, with hundreds of millions of migrant workers heading to their hometowns. In the lead up to the holiday, factories run flat out to fill orders before shutting, but workers start setting off as much as two weeks earlier on packed trains and buses. After the holiday they may take the same amount of time to return, or not. The holiday is a prime occasion to switch jobs.

This can be unnerving for retailers and importers overseas who rely on China. Shipping companies warn customers that China’s transport networks are at capacity during the holiday and that shipments need to be ready well before the nation-wide shutdown begins.

Between the arbitrary influence of the zodiac and the actions of consumers in preparation for the holiday, the Chinese New Year has a far-reaching effect on both the Chinese and world economy.

 

Sources consulted:

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-01-26/china-s-gold-imports-from-hong-kong-rise-as-lunar-new-year-looms

https://www.bostonglobe.com/business/2015/02/18/chinese-new-year-and-its-effect-world-economy/0HgwjHXjCODvwNdJXZdNQI/story.html

http://www.forbes.com/sites/hamdiraini/2017/01/24/chinese-new-year-travel-trends-to-look-out-for-in-2017/2/#7a9229557695

 

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The Rise of China’s Credit-Driven Economy

China’s economy has developed rapidly since its evolution from a planned economy, but only recently have consumers built up enough trust in the system to deviate from face-to-face cash transactions that they have relied on for decades. Using credit as a means to purchase goods is a relatively new concept to the Chinese, but its quick adoption has resulted in several benefits, but also unforeseen consequences.

Researchers at the University of Missouri found that credit card adoption in China grew 40% between 2004 and 2009. Despite this astronomic growth, only 30% of urban Chinese households had atleast one credit card in 2012. While the Chinese are realizing the convenience of having a credit card, the government is also encouraging individuals to develop credit histories. In 2015, the government awarded eight companies consumer credit rating licenses in an attempt to develop this new segment of the economy. One such rating agency, Sesame Credit, which is run by Alibaba, offers perks to those who have high credit scores, further incentivizing the use of credit.

Access to credit has dramatically increased consumption in China, especially with the rise of online-retail. Alibaba, who has developed its own virtual credit card, sees a 50% increase in spending from consumers who spend less than 1,000 yuan ($145) online
a month after they receive the card. While these increased consumption patterns bode well for the Chinese economy, there are also unforeseen consequences.

In the first quarter of 2015, Chinese consumers’ credit card debt hit a record high of ~$411 billion, up 35.49% from the first quarter 2014. In tandem with a slowing economy, this figure represented 18.1% of China’s first quarter GDP, compared to 3.8% in the United States. As the use of credit continues to rise, and the economy continues to slow, Chinese regulatory authorities will be forced to implement measures that protect from a potentially catastrophic credit crunch.

 

Sources:

http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21710292-chinas-consumer-credit-rating-culture-evolving-fastand-unconventionally-just

http://www.chinaeconomicreview.com/chinas-consumers-embrace-credit-cards-regulators-rebuff-new-industry-entrants

http://munews.missouri.edu/news-releases/2012/0828-chinese-credit-card-usage-growing-quickly-mu-study-finds/

https://www.ft.com/content/e1469cf0-9cf5-11e3-9360-00144feab7de

http://www.vox.com/2015/7/8/8911519/china-stock-market-charts

http://www.tradingeconomics.com/china/consumer-credit

 

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Winners and Losers: US-China Trade War

Much recent literature on US-China trade relations has focused on the possibility of a trade war between the countries with the two largest GDPs in the world. New US President Donald Trump has consistently accused the Chinese of manipulating their currency, which is an outdated claim. Most conservative estimates suggest that China has spent over $1 trillion in foreign reserves to bolster the value of the renminbi. As part of his campaign rhetoric, Trump threatened a 45% tariff on all Chinese imports if the Chinese did not end this “currency manipulation.”

But what would be the Chinese response to such an imposition? Luckily, we have some insight into what such a tariff would look like. In 2009, shortly after taking office, President Barack Obama imposed a 35% tariff on Chinese tires. In response, the Chinese took a case against the US to the World Trade Organization, to no avail. Thus, China took steps to impose tariffs on several US products, leaving both countries with losses as a result. If President Trump were to impose an even higher tariff on all Chinese goods, the results could be disastrous for both countries. Chinese exports to the US have been steadily increasing, and Chinese officials see no cause for concern over the potentiality of a tariff, since the US market only accounts for about 18% of their exports. Officials say that if a trade war were to occur, US companies like Apple, which rely on inputs made more cheaply in China, would suffer much more than Chinese companies would. While the Chinese could simply replace Boeing orders with Airbus, auto and iPhone sales in the US would suffer a huge setback.

The large (and growing) trade deficit between the US and China is indicative of an unbalanced flow of goods between the two countries. Further, while Chinese exports to the US account for 18% of their total exports, Chinese goods account for 22% of all imports. A trade war would be detrimental to hundreds of US firms which rely on imports of inputs to their production processes. As we know from economic theory, increasing the cost of inputs to a production function decreases the quantity of those inputs, and thus decreases the total output a firm can produce. This would dramatically affect many companies, like Apple, which have huge fixed costs associated with the production of their product. In the long run, although the US might see some tax revenue from such high tariffs, China would likely be the winner of a trade war, as they could, with relative ease, send their exports to other countries while US companies would struggle to find alternative sources of imports.

Sources Consulted:

http://www.tradingeconomics.com/china/exports

http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1017696.shtml

http://money.cnn.com/2017/01/03/news/economy/obama-china-tire-

tariff/http://www.worldsrichestcountries.com/top_us_imports.html

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China’s Service Economy

China’s rapid economic growth into an industrial production powerhouse is well-documented but recent developments suggest this trend could be reversing. Known as the world’s largest production/expenditure economy, China is slowly transitioning into an economy centered on consumption and service. Growth in China’s industrial sector has slowed from 7.3% to 6.0% over the past 3 years as services grew at a rate of 8.3% in 2016 compared to 7.8% the year before. In addition, consumer spending increased by 9.6% in 2016. This increase can largely be attributed to a 26.% rise in online retail sales which is quickly becoming a staple of the Chinese economy. The development of China as a consumer/service economy in recent years mirrors the slowing of overall economic growth. In 2016 China’s economy grew by 6.7% percent down slightly from 6.9% in 2015 and more significantly from 7.3% in 2014. What is the relationship between China’s service/consumer growth and the slowing of overall economic growth?

The Chinese government paints the increase in consumption and the service sector of the economy as a successful policy pivot. President Xi Jinping touts the growth of consumer spending as a result of his plan to double citizens income between 2010 and 2020. However, many independent analysts see the rise of consumption and the service sector as more reflective of a weakening industrial sector rather than a successful policy pivot to service sector growth. This is why many see the increase the proportion of service as a part of GDP, up to 64.7% last year, as merely compensating for a lagging Chinese industrial sector. Slowing markets and lack of fiscal support for new industrial projects, especially in construction, have contributed to the relative decrease in Chinese industrial power.

It remains to be seen whether this trend of slowing industrial growth in China will continue into the future. Despite growing at lower rates than the previous two years, Chinese manufacturing still grew throughout 2016 and even outperformed projections of slower growth. The same factors that allowed China to grow into a powerful production economy (massive population, low barriers of entry) could certainly continue to sustain China as an industrial power. However, the data suggests that consumption and services will continue to grow relative to production over the next few years and possibly even further into the future. How Chinese policymakers handle the transition to a service/consumption economy will be interesting to observe over the next few years.

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Shanzhai innovation

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iPhone City

It is not hard to understand how China, with its massive, young, and tech savvy population, buys more iPhones and smartphones than any other nation on earth. The Chinese also make almost all of them. There’s a clichéd animosity toward the “Made in China” phenomenon here in the states, for many reasons: The loss of American jobs to overseas labor (an inevitable result of globalization), the large trade imbalance between the U.S. and Asia, and the notion that large companies like Apple subject their Chinese workers to harsh and inhumane working conditions. Donald Trump made headlines with another characteristic threat towards Apple’s Tim Cook, not-so-subtly suggesting that Apple should start making their products in the states (or else).

However, when one looks at the dynamics of comparative advantage and industry in China, this is truly a ridiculous concept for Donald to worry himself about. It’s also borderline insane to expect Apple to simply move their entire production line to the states based on the threat of a tariff. The perception of this Trump ideology is that Apple is screwing over the American worker in search of more cash. Indeed, it is far cheaper to produce iPhones in China ($65 cheaper to be exact) than in the U.S. It’s also extremely important to consider Apple’s supply chain for the iPhone. Almost every single part is produced in Asia, with the exception of most semiconductors, which are produced in Europe. If one wanted the iPhone to be “made in America,” not only would Apple have to open a factory here, but so would every single one of its suppliers.

It’s also important to recognize that the quality of Chinese factories and production lines are far better than any in the United States. We “can’t compete” with the supply chains that are in place there. Executives say that there are literally not enough technically skilled Americans who would want to do the job.

One of the main criticisms lobbed against Apple is their hiring practices overseas and working conditions in the factories. Very low pay and long hours are the main complaints, and Apple has spent ample resources to try and shake this perception with little success. However, there are many positives when an Apple plant comes to town. Not only does a factory hire tens of thousands of workers (an absolutely massive injection into the local economy, low wages aside), but it improves the relations between locals and their governments. Officials actively seek to make their town the home of the next hardware factory, and offer millions of dollars in money upfront to build them. In Zhengzhou, affectionately known as “iPhone City,” they produce 500,000 iPhones every single day. The local government is reported to give significant tax breaks and subsidies to Foxconn, one of Apple’s manufacturers, to keep the jobs there.

I don’t think Apple wants to go anywhere soon. It seems that Chinese workers, the Chinese government, and the American consumer, all agree.

 

References

Barboza, David. “How China Built ‘Iphone City’ With Billions In Perks For Apple’S Partner”. Nytimes.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 1 Feb. 2017.

Bradsher, Charles. “Apple, America And A Squeezed Middle Class”. Nytimes.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 1 Feb. 2017.

“Donald Trump Says He’ll Stop Apple From Making Iphones In China”. Fortune.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 1 Feb. 2017.

Oster, Shai. “Behind The Scenes At Apple’s Controversial China Iphone Factory”. chicagotribune.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 1 Feb. 2017.

 

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Chinese Investment in Foreign Real Estate: Motivations and New Regulations

Data released in the first week of January indicate that Chinese investments in global real estate continued to grow rapidly in 2016, hitting a record $33 billion. The United States is the most popular venue for Chinese investment, followed by Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Australia. As the Chinese upper class continues to expand, global real estate has gained prominence over other forms of investment because it is easily managed and even easier to understand. The majority of investment in foreign real estate comes through insurance companies, conglomerates, and property developers.

Fig 1: Chinese investment in foreign real estate, by market  (https://www.ft.com/content/d8d80b6e-e381-11e6-8405-9e5580d6e5fb)

Klaus E. Meyer, of Forbes, identifies three major factors which may be motivating Chinese investment in foreign real estate. Firstly, investors may simply be seeking assets which are expected to yield a good return, as real estate in metropolises like London and New York typically do. Secondly, as Chinese companies begin to go global, they might look for new real estate development opportunities by building commercial and residential buildings across the globe. Lastly, investing in foreign markets provides an opportunity for Chinese businesses to diversify their assets, especially amid growing concerns about the slowdown of the domestic economy.

As we discussed in class, however, the Chinese government is growing concerned about the ever-increasing rate of capital outflows. A domestic economic slump has resulted in further concerns about the government’s ability to keep exchange rates stable, as Chinese foreign currency reserves fell to a six-year low of $3.052 trillion in November. On Jan. 2nd, 2017, the Chinese government announced that banks would have to submit reports on overseas cash transactions of more than 50,000 yuan (around $7,000), down from 200.000 yuan prior to new regulations. In addition, banks will have to report any overseas transfers by individuals of more than $10,000. Rueters reports that Chinese citizens were restricted from purchasing “overseas property, securities, life insurance or other investment-style insurance products.” While it is unclear to what effect new regulations will have on corporate overseas investments, they will certainly restrict the ability of individual investors to engage in foreign real estate markets. It may be that the glory days of Chinese investment in foreign real estate as we know them are be over.

Fig 2. Chinese owned properties in London (http://www.forbes.com/sites/ceibs/2016/05/05/whats-behind-chinas-worldwide-real-estate-shopping-spree/#d409cd1ce29d)

Sources Consulted

https://www.ft.com/content/d8d80b6e-e381-11e6-8405-9e5580d6e5fb

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-yuan-idUSKBN14M032

http://fortune.com/2016/08/18/china-overseas-property-investment/

http://www.forbes.com/sites/ceibs/2016/05/05/whats-behind-chinas-worldwide-real-estate-shopping-spree/#d409cd1ce29d

 

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The Importance of TVE’s in China’s Early Economic Reforms

It is a generally accepted fact that the 1978 reforms of Deng Xiaoping centered on intrinsic motivations have contributed greatly to the economic expansion of China and have secured the country’s legitimacy as an economic powerhouse.  This shift has allowed for consumption be classified as the main driver of economic growth.  But what seems to be lost in translation of this significant progress are the micro reforms and entities that contributed to the initial growth of China in the 1980s.  One major reform mechanism utilized early on were the Township and Village Enterprises (TVES, 乡镇企业), which were market-oriented public enterprises under the purview of local governments based in townships and villages in the People’s Republic of China.  It is important to remember that TVE refers to companies located in townships and villages, not owned by township and villages.  This allows us to work under the framework of consumption and intrinsic motivations driving early growth (privatization), and contributes to why the TVEs were successful in China during the 1980s.

TVE have been hailed as one of the wonders of the reforms by Chinese and foreigners alike.  There initial success came at a pivotal opportunity where farmers’ incomes by the mid 1980’s began to stagnate, and the best solution to increase income was to stimulate non-grain and non-agricultural production.  In 1978 TVEs employed amount 28 million people, but between 1984 and 1997 they created nearly 100 million non-farm jobs.  Local governments tended to and fostered the developments of these TVE’s for they saw these entities as regular sources of revenues in resource-constrained environments.  The TVE reforms also allowed for the rural area’s labor forces to more efficiently engage in industrial outputs rather than agricultural outputs.  Even Deng noted the unexpected results, “what took us by complete surprise was the development of TVEs.. All sorts of small enterprises boomed in the countryside, as if a strong army appeared suddenly from nowhere” (Renmin ribao, 13 June 1987).  The results seem quite clear for it fuels individual incentives; the decision to relax the state purchasing monopoly on agricultural goods (a hallmark of Mao’s failed policies) to make them available to local rural industry allowed for the efficient usage of excess rural labor, processed agricultural products, and diversified production of a range of consumer goods and products for export.  Statistically, the results are justified as the growth rate was exponential in its explosives, with rural industrial output growing at 21 per cent per annum from 1978 through the early 1990s.

The presence of a ready labor force that was relatively cheap compared to urban areas was crucial to the expansion of the TVEs.  A tight budget constraint meant that there was greater incentive to produce things for the market that would produce a good rate of return on investment.  The strengths of the TVEs also included their flexibility in production but also their organizational structure (some were ran by the government, but most were not).  As Wong (1988, pp. 3-30) shows, through the 1980s most of the supposedly collective TVEs in practice operated as private enterprises (instead of as collective organizations).  If one looks at ownership, of the 12 million TVEs in 1985, 10 million were private.  Though TVEs maintained a presence in areas such as Southern Jiangsu and along the Pearl River Delta (Shanghai), TVEs were most vibrant in the poorest and most agricultural provinces of China.  The role of the TVEs during the 1980s allows us to generalize that private enterprise has played a crucial role in China’s economic development.  Why they are no longer as relevant in today’s Chinese society is another topic of its own.

 

China Economic Yearbook, 1998

 

Sources Consulted:

Saich, Tony. “Governance and Politics of China”. 4th edition. Macmillan Education, Palgrave. UK. 2015.

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Shanghai’s Mobike and the Entrepreneurial Culture in China

After China’s feudal system was abolished and a republican government was formed in the 1920s, a sector of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) was created. This sector was virtually eliminated in the 1950s with the collectivization of agriculture and the nationalization of industry under Mao’s Communist government. Enterprises had to seek approval from the government for all expenditures exceeding $10, and SOEs held near-monopolies in the market. China’s “iron rice bowl” system, which is now abolished, guaranteed life-long employment in SOEs and controlled nearly every aspect of employee’s lives. Thus, it was difficult for government outsiders to gain significant social and economic standing. The reforms of Deng Xiaoping and the “opening up” of China’s economy has spurned private sector growth. During the last 35 years the entrepreneurial sector has grown from about zero to “more than six million registered private businesses”, which account for 70% of China’s GDP. In 2000, private sector and state-owned enterprises generated equal parts of China’s GDP: 4 trillion yuan. This number has grown 18 times for private sector companies, while state-owned companies have only grown by one-third of private sector industries.

Historically, China’s entrepreneurs have been relatively uneducated and have had little to no management experience. In modern-day China, entrepreneurs are well educated, and average about 31 years of age. They are ambitious, curious, and are aware of the historical difficulties of generating investment and company growth. One company in particular, Mobike, is reaping the benefits of the recent growth of China’s entrepreneurial sector.

http://mobike.com/sg/public/hero.jpg

Mobike is a Shanghai bike-sharing startup founded in 2015 by Hu Weiwei. The company is unlike government-owned bike-sharing companies whose bikes are free and must be placed in designated areas around cities. Mobike’s bicycles are self-locking, can be left anywhere, and users unlock the bikes by scanning a QR code through the Mobike app. It costs about 1-2 yuan to use the bikes for one hour. In September 2016, Mobike had 30,000 bikes in China’s major city hubs, and planned to expand operations to 100,000 bikes by the end of 2016 due to an undisclosed investment from internet giant Tencent. Tencent owns WeChat, which is a social media app with over 800 million users. This investment will inevitably encourage young Chinese entrepreneurs and further fuel China’s private sector, as if it were not growing quickly enough.

Sites consulted:

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-10-30/uber-s-bruising-battle-in-china-is-being-refought-with-bicycles

http://www.forbes.com/sites/tseedward/2016/04/05/the-rise-of-entrepreneurship-in-china/#1e7d69986d61

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/in_depth/china_politics/key_people_events/html/4.stm

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0266242613517913

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On Chinese Aluminum Capacity Growth

A major complaint frequently lodged against Chinese industry, frequently by US politicians or media outlets, relates to state-subsidized industrial production that allows Chinese producers to sell below cost in international markets. Most recently these complaints are focused on the aluminum industry. In the graph below, one can see the dramatic increase in Chinese aluminum production over the past 13 years.

Source: Thomson Reuters, Andy Holm

In one of his last acts as President of the United States, Barack Obama launched a formal complaint with the WTO with regards to artificially low-interest rate loans that allow Chinese aluminum facilities to modernize their facilities and increase production. Going back to the graph, however, one can see the major dip in production in January of 2016, which many attribute to falling aluminum prices due to oversupply. Are Chinese aluminum producers really immune to market forces, as so many have suggested?

News stories  also report on subsidies for coal, electricity and other inputs for the production of aluminum. Coverage reached its shrillest pitch upon the discovery of a massive aluminum stockpile in Mexico, which was subsequently shipped to Vietnam, becoming a part of an even larger stockpile valued at over $5 billion. Some suspect Chinese aluminum producers are engaging in such movements in an attempt to avoid protective US tariffs that prevent firms from “dumping,” or selling below cost, in US markets. Such huge volume, however, has broader implications for the economics of aluminum production, as many worry the movement of a stockpile of such tremendous size has the potential to impact aluminum prices in markets around the world.

Some of these beliefs, however, do not mesh with other aluminum production numbers coming out of China at year’s end. In fact, Chinese aluminum output growth was at its lowest level since 2009 in 2016. Between decreased output growth and a global supply glut, this year may signal a shift in the global aluminum market, with stabilizing levels of production which could allow demand and prices to stabilize as well.

 

 

Sources consulted:

http://www.wsj.com/articles/u-s-launches-formal-wto-complaint-over-chinese-aluminum-1484234628

http://www.wsj.com/articles/giant-aluminum-stockpile-was-shipped-from-mexico-to-vietnam-1480588228

https://news.metal.com/newscontent/100720886/what-changes-happen-in-china-aluminum-market-in-2016-after-price-surges-smm-exclusive

http://www.wsj.com/articles/aluminum-billionaire-planning-escape-from-china-lawyer-1482953518

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-aluminium-trade-ahome-idUSKBN1501Y8

 

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